Liquids in Dishes in a Lab
Proteins and Peptides

Proteins and peptides represent the second generation of therapeutic molecules. Being biological molecules, they have the ability to interact with other biological molecules to treat diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, infectious diseases and more with improved specificity and targeting. Delivery technologies have not kept pace with the discovery of new protein drugs so there remain many challenges in formulating therapeutic proteins.


Researchers are encapsulating proteins and peptides into nanoparticles to:

• Improve solubility
• Control aggregation and concentration
• Control release
• Reformulate for different routes of administration


Proteins can be encapsulated into several types of nanoparticles including:


Polymeric Nanoparticle and Micelles
Polymer NPs and Micelles

Nucleic Acid Lipid Nanoparticle LNP


There are several published examples of using NanoAssemblr® technologyto formulate therapeutic proteins into lipid-based particles. Molinaro et al have formulated transmembrane proteins into bilayer liposomes to create proteo-liposomes. Also, Li et al have developed a method to make virosomes that display natural viral proteins on their surface.


Formulation TypeProtein ClassRelated Resources
Proteo-liposomeTransmembrane ProteinPublication
VirosomeViral Envelope ProteinPublication



In addition to delivering the therapeutic peptide or protein itself, many researchers are encoding therapeutic proteins and peptides in mRNA or DNA and delivering those using nucleic acid LNPs to use the patient’s cellular machinery to produce the therapeutic.

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