Publication - Abstract
April 08, 2021
Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) have been used as drug delivery systems for natural and synthetic compounds and are designed to control the loading and release of biodegradable materials to target cells, tissues, and organs. Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes have anti-inflammatory properties but are lipophilic, cytotoxic, and not biocompatible with many cells. To determine whether biodegradable PLGA/PVA could improve the biocompatibility of sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene-loaded NPs were synthesized and their effects on human mast cells (LAD2), the major effector cells of allergic inflammation, were determined. NPs composed of PLGA/PVA and two types of sesquiterpenes (fukinone, PLGA/PVA-21 and 10βH-8α,12-epidioxyeremophil-7(11)-en-8β-ol, PLGA/PVA-22) were produced using a microfluidic synthesis method. The NPs’ size distribution and morphology were evaluated by dynamic light scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PLGA/PVA-21 and PLGA/PVA-22 were 60 to 70 nm and were readily internalized by LAD2 as shown by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy, and TEM. While unencapsulated sesquiterpenes decreased LAD2 cell viability by 20%, PLGA/PVA-21 and PLGA/PVA-22 did not alter LAD2 viability, showing that encapsulation improved the biocompatibility of the sesquiterpenes. PLGA/PVA-21 and PLGA/PVA-22 decreased the expression of genes encoding the subunits of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεR1α, FcεR1β, FcεR1γ) and the stem cell factor receptor (Kit,), suggesting that hybrid NPs could alter mast cell responses to antigens and shift their maturation. Similarly, PLGA/PVA-21 and PLGA/PVA-22 inhibited tryptase expression but had no effect on chymase expression, thereby promoting a shift to the tryptase-positive phenotype (MCT). Lastly, PLGA/PVA-21 and PLGA/PVA-22 inhibited mast cell degranulation when the LAD2 cells were activated by IgE crosslinking and FcεRI. Overall, our results suggest that PLGA/PVA-21 and PLGA/PVA-22 alter human mast cell phenotype and activation without modifying viability, making them a more biocompatible approach than treating cells with sesquiterpenes alone.