Curcumin exhibits potent anticancer activity via various mechanisms, but its in vivo efficacy has been hampered by poor solubility. Nanotechnology has been employed to deliver curcumin, but most of the reported systems suffered from low drug loading capacity and poor stability. Here, we report the development and optimization of a liposomal formulation for curcumin (Lipo-Cur) using an automated microfluidic technology. Lipo-Cur exhibited a mean diameter of 120 nm with a low polydispersity index (<0.2) and superior loading capacity (17 wt %) compared to other reported liposomal systems. Lipo-Cur increased the water solubility of curcumin by 700-fold, leading to 8–20-fold increased systemic exposure compared to the standard curcumin suspension formulation. When coadministered with cisplatin to tumor-bearing mice, Lipo-Cur augmented the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in multiple mouse tumor models and decreased the nephrotoxicity. This is the first report demonstrating the dual effects of curcumin enabled by a nanoformulation in enhancing the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of a chemo-drug in animal models under a single and low dose administration.