A Scalable Method for Squalenoylation and Assembly of Multifunctional 64Cu-Labeled Squalenoylated Gemcitabine Nanoparticles


Authors: S.T. Tucci, J.W. Seo, H. Kakwere, A. Kheirolomoom, E.S. Ingham, L.M. Mahakian, S. Tam, S. Tumbale, M. Baikoghli, H. Cheng and K.W. Ferrara

Journal: Nanotheranostics

DOI: 10.7150/ntno.26969

Publication - Abstract

September 05, 2018

Abstract

Squalenoylation of gemcitabine, a front-line therapy for pancreatic cancer, allows for improved cellular-level and system-wide drug delivery. The established methods to conjugate squalene to gemcitabine and to form nanoparticles (NPs) with the squalenoylated gemcitabine (SqGem) conjugate are cumbersome, time-consuming and can be difficult to reliably replicate. Further, the creation of multi-functional SqGem-based NP theranostics would facilitate characterization of in vivo pharmacokinetics and efficacy.

Methods:

Squalenoylation conjugation chemistry was enhanced to improve reliability and scalability using tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) protecting groups. We then optimized a scalable microfluidic mixing platform to produce SqGem-based NPs and evaluated the stability and morphology of select NP formulations using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity was evaluated in both PANC-1 and KPC (KrasLSL-G12D/+; Trp53LSL-R172H/+; Pdx-Cre) pancreatic cancer cell lines. A 64Cu chelator (2-S-(4-aminobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid, NOTA) was squalenoylated and used with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to monitor the in vivo fate of SqGem-based NPs.

Results:


Squalenoylation yields of gemcitabine increased from 15% to 63%. Cholesterol-PEG-2k
inclusion was required to form SqGem-based NPs using our technique, and additional cholesterol inclusion increased particle stability at room temperature; after 1 week the PDI of SqGem NPs with cholesterol was ~ 0.2 while the PDI of SqGem NPs lacking cholesterol was ~ 0.5. Similar or superior cytotoxicity was achieved for SqGem-based NPs compared to gemcitabine or Abraxane® when evaluated at a concentration of 10 µM. Squalenoylation of NOTA enabled in vivo monitoring of SqGem-based NP pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.

Conclusion:

We present a scalable technique for fabricating efficacious squalenoylatedgemcitabine nanoparticles and confirm their pharmacokinetic profile using a novel multifunctional
64Cu-SqNOTA-SqGem NP.

Advanced Search

close
  • Publications
  • Application Notes
  • Posters
  • Workshops
  • Videos & Webinars
  • Articles
Search

Browse by Category

  • Application
    • Diagnostic and Imaging
    • Genetic Medicine
    • Hematology
    • Metabolic Disorders
    • Neuroscience
    • Oncology
    • Skeletal Disorders
    • Targeted Drug Delivery
    • Vaccines
    • Other Applications
    • Cell therapy
  • Formulation
    • Liposomes
    • Nucleic Acid Lipid Nanoparticles
    • Polymeric Nanoparticles
    • Other Formulations
  • Payload
    • DNA
    • microRNA
    • mRNA
    • siRNA
    • Small Molecule Drugs
    • Other Payloads


related content

Publication - Abstract

Natural products have been successfully used to treat various ailments since ancient times and currently several anticancer agents based on natural products are used as the main therapy to treat cancer patients, or as a complimentary treatment to chemotherapy or radiation. Balano...
Read More


Publication - Abstract

Supramolecular cyclodextrin-based nanoparticles (CD-NPs) mediated by host-guest interactions have gained increased popularity because of their “green” and simple preparation procedure, as well as their versatility in terms of inclusion of active molecules. Herein, we ...
Read More


Sign Up and Stay Informed
Sign up today to automatically receive new Precision NanoSystems application notes, conference posters, relevant science publications, and webinar invites.