A Comprehensive Review on Intracellular Delivery


Authors: D.M. Rad, M.A. Rad, S.R. Bazaz, N. Kashaninejad, D. Jin and M.E. Warkiani

Journal: Advanced Materials

DOI: 10.1002/adma.202005363

Publication - Abstract

February 16, 2021

Abstract

Intracellular delivery is considered an indispensable process for various studies, ranging from medical applications (cell‐based therapy) to fundamental (genome‐editing) and industrial (biomanufacture) approaches. Conventional macroscale delivery systems critically suffer from such issues as low cell viability, cytotoxicity, and inconsistent material delivery, which have opened up an interest in the development of more efficient intracellular delivery systems. In line with the advances in microfluidics and nanotechnology, intracellular delivery based on micro‐ and nanoengineered platforms has progressed rapidly and held great promises owing to their unique features. These approaches have been advanced to introduce a smorgasbord of diverse cargoes into various cell types with the maximum efficiency and the highest precision. This review differentiates macro‐, micro‐, and nanoengineered approaches for intracellular delivery. The macroengineered delivery platforms are first summarized and then each method is categorized based on whether it employs a carrier‐ or membrane‐disruption‐mediated mechanism to load cargoes inside the cells. Second, particular emphasis is placed on the micro‐ and nanoengineered advances in the delivery of biomolecules inside the cells. Furthermore, the applications and challenges of the established and emerging delivery approaches are summarized. The topic is concluded by evaluating the future perspective of intracellular delivery toward the micro‐ and nanoengineered approaches.

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