Mastering the Tools: Natural versus Artificial Vesicles in Nanomedicine

Authors: L. Leggio, G. Arrabito, V. Ferrara, S. Vivarelli, G. Paterno, B. Marchetti, B. Pignataro and N. Iraci

Journal: Advanced Healthcare Materials

DOI: 10.1002/adhm.202000731

Publication - Abstract

August 31, 2020


Naturally occurring extracellular vesicles and artificially made
vesicles represent important tools in nanomedicine for the efficient delivery of
biomolecules and drugs. Since its first appearance in the literature 50 years
ago, the research on vesicles is progressing at a fast pace, with the main goal
of developing carriers able to protect cargoes from degradation, as well as to
deliver them in a time- and space-controlled fashion. While natural occurring
vesicles have the advantage of being fully compatible with their host, artificial
vesicles can be easily synthetized and functionalized according to the target to
reach. Research is striving to merge the advantages of natural and artificial
vesicles, in order to provide a new generation of highly performing vesicles,
which would improve the therapeutic index of transported molecules. This
progress report summarizes current manufacturing techniques used to
produce both natural and artificial vesicles, exploring the promises and pitfalls
of the different production processes. Finally, pros and cons of natural versus
artificial vesicles are discussed and compared, with special regard toward the
current applications of both kinds of vesicles in the healthcare field.

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