Controlling the size and narrow size distribution of polymer-based nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery is an important parameter that significantly influences their colloidal stability, biodistribution, and targeting ability. Herein, we report a high-throughput microfluidic process to fabricate colloidally stable aqueous nanoparticulate colloids with tunable sizes at 50–150 nm and narrow size distribution. The nanoparticulates are designed with different molecular weight polyesters having both ester bonds (responsive to esterase) and sulfide linkages (to oxidative reaction) on the backbones, thus exhibiting dual esterase/oxidation responses, causing the destabilization of the nanoparticulates to lead to the controlled release of encapsulated therapeutics. The systematic investigation on both microfluidic and formulation parameters enables to control their properties as allowing for decreasing nanoparticulate sizes as well as improving colloidal stability and cytotoxicity. Further to such control over smaller size and narrow size distribution, dual stimuli-responsive degradation and excellent cellular uptake could suggest that the microfluidic nanoparticulates stabilized with polymeric stabilizers could offer the versatility toward dual smart drug delivery exhibiting enhanced release kinetics.