mRNA gene regulation
Manipulating gene expression with mRNA has several advantages over other conventional gene therapy methods, which use plasmids and viruses to deliver DNA. Using mRNA for transfection avoids the risk of causing severe immune reactions and the risk of permanent integration into the host genome that can occur with viral DNA transfection. The transient expression and lack of immunogenicity often makes mRNA a better solution for both in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. However, mRNA alone is unable to transfect cells and is easily degraded by nucleases, so it requires a delivery vehicle to maintain its stability and facilitate cellular uptake and transfection. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are an advanced delivery system that effectively deliver nucleic acids such as mRNA.